Scientific Program

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Day 2 :

  • Track 9: Diseases in Aquaculture
  • Track 6: Fisheries Management and Policy

Session Introduction

Uneke Bilikis Iyabo

Dept of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Title: Protozoan parasites in Tilapia zilli of Ebonyi River, Southeastern Nigeria: Implications for fish health management and policy

Bilikis Iyabo Uneke holds a doctorate in Fisheries Biology. She is a leading researcher and lecturer in the Department of Biological Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria. In the last decade, her work has focused on aquaculture, stock assessment, modeling, fisheries management and policy. She has worked extensively on the parasites of teleost fishes of the inland waters of southeastern Nigeria.


The fish live in balance with the parasites, but this balance can be broken mainly by environmental disturbances, among which the changes in the water quality have a relevant role, as well as inadequate management and high stocking densities of fishes.Thus the prevalence of protozoa parasites in Tilapia zilli in Ebonyi River, Southeastern Nigeria. Samples were collected from Ebonyi River and protozoan parasites were isolated using standard laboratory method. The result showed that out of 120 fish of T. zilli 61.7% were infected by protozoan, while 38.3% were not infected. Eimeria spp  (Coccidia) had the highest prevalence of (32.4%) while Euchynorhycus, Chlodonella, Dactygyrus  and Ichyobodo had the lowest prevalence of 1.4%, 2.7%, 4.1% and 4.1%) respectively. Other parasites identified included Triochodina (18.9%), Piscinoodouium (9.5%) Hexemita (10.8%) Teczospina (5.4%) and H. intestinal (10.8%). This study revealed that T. zilli with length ranges from 5.1-7.5 TL cm (Total length) were most prone to protozoan infection while those ranging from 19.6-20.5 TL cm and above were least infected. The prevalence of protozoan infection in T. zilli in relationship to the weight, showed that T. zilli  with weight ranges from 8-20g were more  infected by protozoan than those with weight ranges from 131-140 and above indicating that smaller fishes were more susceptible to parasitic infection; therefore consumers should pay more attention to the size of fish they consume.

Table 1. Prevalence of protozoan parasite in T. zilli

Protozoa parasite

No. of parasites isolated

% prevalence

Emeria sp



Trichodina sp



Piscinoodonium sp



Hexemita sp



Teczospina sp



Euchynorhycus sp



Dactygyrus sp



Icthyobodo sp



Chlodonella sp



H. intestinalis







  • Track 8: Advances in Aquaculture Nutrition

Session Introduction

Gbadamosi Oluyemi K

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria



The gustation and growth performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fed African basil, Ocimum gratissimum leaf meal supplemented diet was assessed in the present study. O. niloticus of the initial weight of 11.85±0.24 was evaluated over a 56 days period. Five experimental diets were formulated at 0 mg/g (control), 20 mg/g, 40 mg/g, 60 mg/g and 80 mg/g inclusion levels of O. gratissimum. African basil leaf was treated by soaking in water for 72 hours and sun-dried. All diets were isonitrogenous with each treatment having three replicates. Fish fed the 80mg/g O. gratissimum leaf meal recorded the best growth performance in body weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR). Statistically, there was significant increase in growth and nutritional performance of fish in this study with increasing inclusion levels of O. gratissimum (P<0.05). There was no adverse effect of O. gratissimum supplementation on the hepatosomatic and intestinosomatic index of fish in this study (P<0.05). There was also significant increase in the gustation of fish with increasing O. gratissimum supplementation (P<0.05). This could be attributed to the supplementation of O. gratissimum. Therefore, the present study suggests that O. gratissimum leaf meal may be supplemented up to 80 mg/g level to increase gustation and growth performance of O. niloticus.   


Dr. Muchlisin is a Professor in Applied Ichthyology (Fisheries Managgement & Aquaculture) . He was graduated in Aquaculture from University of Riau, Indonesia (Bachelor in Aquaculture). He started working for Syiah Kuala University from 1999 to present. Muchlisin was completed his M.Sc & Ph.D Degree from Universiti Sains Malaysia in Aquaculture&Ichthyology, respectively. He has published many papers in several reputable journals and editor for several journals , proceedings and books & reviewer for some referred journals


The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dose of papain enzyme in the diet for growing, survival rate and feed efficacy of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus). The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Aquatic of Faculty of Veterinary, Syiah Kuala University from January to March 2016. The completely randomized design was used in this study. Six dosages level of papain enzyme were tested with 4 replications i.e. 0 g kg-1 of feed, 20.0 g kg-1 feed, 22.5 g kg-1 of feed, 25.0 g kg-1 of feed,  27.5 g kg-1 of feed, and 30.0 g kg-1 of feed. The experimental fish fed twice a day at feeding level of 5% for 60 days. The results showed that weight gain ranged from 2.41g to 7.37g,  total length gain ranged from 0.67cm to 3.17cm, specific growth rate ranged from 1.46 % day to 3.41% day, daily growth rate ranged from 0.04 g day to 0.13 g day, feed conversion ratio ranged from 1.94 to 3.59, feed efficiency ranged from 27.99% to 51.37%, protein retention ranged from 3.38% to 28.28%, protein digestibility ranged from 50.63% to 90.38%, and survival rate ranged from 88.89% to 100%. The highest rate for all parameters were found in the dosage of  3.00% papain enzyme kg feed. The  ANOVA test showed that enzyme papain gave a significant effect on the weight gain, total length gain,  daily growth rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, protein retention, protein digestibility, and survival rate of the climbing perch (Anabas testudieus). The best enzyme papain dosage was 3.0%.


Oyas Ahmed Asimi has served in Department of Fisheries for 7 years as technical expert with Joint Director Fisheries. Presently working in Fish Nutrition as Senior Assistant Professor. As per mandate of our university i.e., teaching, research and extension, all the three mandates were covered within fish nutrition research. I have worked particularly in enhancement of fish immune system and growth with intervention of some herbs.


The main constraint presently is the availability of sufficient/required quantity of cost effective quality feed. At present one of the main fish feed ingredient (fishmeal) is procured from outside the state due to which the cost of production is very high. In order to make available sufficient quantity of cost effective feed and cater to the demand of various rearing units for feed in the State, it is high time to replace fishmeal with alternate source of protein. Kashmir valley produces good quantities of feed materials derived from crops and other sources. These include a wide variety of oil-seed cakes and meals, pulses, and mill by-products of seeds and grains. Also available are appreciable quantities of by-products from the meat, fish, fruit processing industries and particularly silkworm pupae. Keeping in view the nutritional value of silkworm pupae and its profuse availability in the state, cost effective feed could be formulated and feeding trails in coldwater aquaculture could be conducted. Lot of research has been done on the replacement of fishmeal throughout the world.

  • Track 2: Aquatic Resources and Environmental Management

Session Introduction

Bijoy Kumar Ghosh

Institute of Water and Flood Management, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh.



The importance of open water fish in our socio-economic regime has recently drawn the attention of the policy makers of the country. FCD/FCDI projects mainly serve the agricultural interests, but it interfere fish migration. This inevitably affects the open water fisheries sector as migratory routes. Nursing grounds of many species of fish are hampered and disturbed for these projects also. In order to permit fish migration in rivers, it is necessary to maintain conditions that help migrants reach their spawning grounds.To overcome obstacles, such as hydraulic structures, placed in the path of migrating fish, structures must be designed to assist the fish to pass them. The periodic and directed travel of fish mainly for feeding, breeding and over coming adverse climatic conditions is called migration. Fish passes are constructed to allow normal breeding migration and to ensure natural route of fish movement. The concept of a fish passes is relatively new in Bangladesh. At present, two Fish passes and two fish friendly structures are constructed. These are Fish Pass in Jamuna to Bangali
River at Sariakandi in Bogra, fish Pass in Kawadighi Haor of Monu river in Moulovibazar, fish friendly structure in Lohajong river of Tangail and fish friendly
structure at Morichardanra in Chapainawabganj. Fish fry, spawning and hatchling
movement from Jamuna to Bangali River was the main objective of Sariakandi Fish Pass Project. The Fish Pass Project of Sariakandi is necessary for the development of the dominant fishes like catfish and small fishes. The structures will also aid in efficient development of the carp fishes. Spawning migration, mainly in carp fish, in the study area was found to begin at the 2nd week of May and continue up to the 3rd week of July. Catfish migrations began at the last week of March and continue up to the 2nd week of June. Fish fry and hatching movement from Jamuna to Bangali river was the main objective of Sariakandi fish pass project. The study also found that there were seven major category migratory species in the project area and the fish pass is contributing positively for growth of fishery resources in then study area. During the monsoon carp fish is the dominating migratory species.Carpfish migrates in a higher velocity, whereas, catfish migrates in a lower velocity. Some problems were found in the operation and management of fish pass.


Mr. Nyro Tum is a fisheries/aquatic expert who has professional experience for nearly two decades. He is a dirty hand man who directly works with local communities and stakeholders at the grounds to build up their capacity and promote participation in managing aquatic resources, particular fishes. Mr. Nyro hold a master of science in freshwater aquatic management from the Rural University of Agriculture and a bachelor of science in fisheries management from the Prek Leap National Colleague of Agriculture, Cambodia. Asides the degree mentioned, he also has lots of chance attending many oversea training courses which are related to fisheries management/governance, freshwater aquatic management, integrated water resources management, NRM and climate change etc.


More than 30 per cent of Cambodia’s land area is covered by wetlands, approximately two million Cambodians receive livelihood benefits from the fisheries sector and fish is one of the most important components in the diet for the majority of the Cambodian people. Hence, the fisheries sector plays an essential role in Cambodia’s food supply and a productive and sustainable fisheries sector is vital for enhanced food security, improved livelihoods and sustainable management of natural resources.
It is alarming that overfishing lost fish habitats due to losses of wetlands, the construction of dams for hydropower, intensification of rice farming and climate change pose new threats to future fish production. These changes are likely to have a negative impact on the natural resource base and jeopardize the country’s efforts to enhance food and nutrition security. Some of these problems can be addressed by the establishment of community fish protected area – Allowing community involved in managing, arranging and sustainable use by themselves – which helps to ease the pressure on wild fish catches, provide complementary fish sources to aquaculture and have the potential for positive impacts on food and nutrition security in general and the generation of benefits for local communities depending upon artisanal fisheries in particular. Community fish protected areas have potential to increase fisheries productivity of wetlands and at the same time conserve wild populations of fish species and other aquatic animals. The Royal Government of Cambodia has therefore set the ambitious goal for 1,200 communes to have an effectively operated CFPA each by 2019.
Although CFPAs have been established and operated in the country for fairly long time, many of those CFPAs are functioning effectively. At present there is some lack of technical capacity and resources to support dissemination of information on good CFPA management practices to the communities and effective engagement of the communities in implementing good CFPA management practices. There is also great need to strengthen the cooperation and networking with stakeholders outside the community in managing CFPAs.
The Fisheries Administration (FiA) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has therefore requested Conservation and Development on Cambodia Organization, CDCam, for technical assistance to improve the management of existing CFPAs. This proposed project will provide technical assistance to build capacity of local authorities and community members in effective operation and management of CFPAs, which will increase the availability of fish from rice field fisheries and contribute to enhanced food and nutrition security as well as reduced rural vulnerability caused by climate change.
Based on practical experiences the protected areas or fish sanctuaries that are jointly managed by local communities are well-controlled and managed effectively. As the results, the fish population in respective protected areas had been increasing overwhelming – not less than triples in average.
Below are activities and steps that are being implemented to support local communities:
 Demarcating boundary based on the community map with agreement from the Fisheries Administration and community fishery committees and relevant authorities.
 Installating Boundary pole to avoid confusion and conflict between community members or outsiders.
 Installating of signboards for awarensess raising and education among people in communities. The signboards can have many messages, such as: “Community Fisheries Protected Area,” “Fishery Resources Conservation Zone,” “No Fishing in the Protected area,” etc.
 Dropping artificial reefs for fish and aquatic animal habitats. The reefs can be bundles of brush, tree stumps, broken boats or trees, etc.
 Installing patrol guard watch towers and regularly patrolling of the site, particularly in the low-water dry season.
 Rehabilitating shallow parts of the refuge ponds to improve aquatic habitats. This requires adequate discussion and coordination with the relevant Fisheries Adminstration officers.
 Replanting flooded forests around refuge ponds.
 Releasing fingerlings and broodstocks of endangered fish species into community fish protected areas and sanctuaries as well as other native aquatic animals.
 Supplementing feeding with rice bran, homemade feed, and/or pelleted feed to fish and aquatic animals in protected areas and sanctuaries.
 Annual monitoring and evaluation to evaluate fish health and densities in protected areas and sanctuaries.